Botulinum Toxin Type A – VISTABEL®/BOTOX® – is a preparation that is produced by ALLERGAN Inc. (USA), a plant located in Westport, Ireland. It takes the leading positions and is the most researched toxin, registered in 80 countries of the world.It has been for the first time approved for the clinical use in the USA in 1989.
Has various trade names – BOTOX® Cosmetic, VISTABEL® and VISTABEX® – to meet requirements of regulatory bodies regarding the differentiation of cosmetological and therapeutic indications for the use.
The first observations about Botulinum Toxin Type A as a preparation relaxing muscles and, as a result, removing painful spastic manifestations were performed in the 50s. 30 years later, Botulinum Toxin Type A was started to be used in ophthalmology to treat squint. Then the ‘pleasant’ side effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A has been for the first time discovered, which became its primary target purpose afterwards – smoothing of wrinkles.
In 1989, American company Allergan was the first company started producing Botulinum Toxin Type A commercially. Since then, it has been one of the main methods to eliminate premature signs of skin aging.
Operating Principle of Botulinum Toxin Type A
Botulinum Toxin Type A is a substance that reduces muscular irritability, blocking the transfer of nerve impulses to them (effect of muscle relaxation).
The operating principle of Botulinum Toxin Type A is its effect relaxing muscles. The purpose of the procedure is the decrease in the tone of forehead and eyebrow muscles to remove both horizontal and vertical wrinkles, which develop because of contraction of these muscles. It allows to smooth the face, having reached rejuvenation effect due to relaxation of mimic muscles.
To understand the influence of Botulinum Toxin Type A more completely, it is necessary to know that the position of eyebrows is regulated by action of the muscles raising eyebrows (forehead muscle) and lowering eyebrows (muscles that are near eyebrows).
Horizontal wrinkles are developed under the influence of the forehead muscle contraction, vertical wrinkles between eyebrows – contraction of muscles lowering eyebrows.
Repeated muscular contractions cause corresponding contraction and stretching of the derma with subsequent wrinkling. The myorelaxing (relaxing) action of Botulinum Toxin Type A blocks this process.
Unfortunately, the structural (connected with features of the facial structure) and age-related wrinkles (developing as a result of the thinning of dermal layers, degradation of structural proteins in the skin against the background of age-related hormonal changes) are not affected by Botulinum Toxin Type A. Botulinum Toxin Type A itself has no rejuvenating effect on derma.
Purpose of Botulinum Toxin Injection
The main objective of the injection is the reduction of quantity of big and small wrinkles in case of a relaxed facial expression, but not complete elimination of facial muscle irritability. Thus, the results are evaluated on the basis of the skin state during relaxation. As for the balance between the muscles lowering and raising eyebrows, the botulinum toxin releases antagonistic muscles by weakening the action of some muscles and removing wrinkles that appear because of them. Therefore, it is so necessary to maintain the balance and ensure harmonious facial expressions.
Procedures of injections with the botulinum toxin have to be carefully distributed in time, it is necessary to observe gradualness and avoid injecting the overdose preparation during the first procedures. It is better to achieve an average result during the first session and not to expect an ideally smooth face. In some cases, it is desirable to perform several procedures to allow the preparation to realize its capabilities as much as possible.
At which age can the botulinum toxin be started to be used?
Botulinum Toxin Type A is allowed for the use for cosmetology purposes at the age of 18 to 65 years.
It is most often recommended to start injections with Botulinum Toxin Type A after 30 years, when the skin loses its elasticity and mimic wrinkles begin to be shown intensively. If you constantly screw up the face, the injections with Botulinum Toxin Type A can be also started at earlier age, with preventive purposes.
- glabellar frown line
- forehead horizontal wrinkles
- whole forehead
- transverse wrinkles on nasal bridge