Aluminium (26,98 a.m.u.) – one of the most circulated elements of Earth crust. A human intake from 5 to 50 mg of Aluminium every day. Aluminium is a tracer element.

Physiological concentration of aluminium in different organs and tissue is very low. Gastro-enteric tract is almost dense for this element: Normal absorption level is approx. 4% of the intaken aluminium. Aluminium constitutes sparsely soluble complexes (mostly with food phosphates), which are poorly-absorbing. Aluminium is easily bonding with plasmatic protein and is rapidly spreading in the body.

20% of plasmatic aluminium is free.

Content of aluminium in adult human body is 30 – 50 mg. Aluminium is being deposed in bones, liver, lungs and grey substance of our brains. Content of this element in lungs and brain is increasing with age.

Main ways of excretion of aluminium from the blood is urinary way and excretion with bilis. Decreased kidney function leads to the increased deposition of aluminium. Despite of the toxicity, aluminium is constituting biological molecule series and plays a pivotal physiologic role in our bodies. Deficiency of aluminium leads to parafunction of creation of phosphate and protein complexes, bone, connective and epithelium tissue regeneration, and parathyroid glands function.

As it was already mentioned, aluminium is a toxic element. Increased constitution of aluminium in occupational dust, release of industrial waste into urban water, usage of some medicines and medical procedures. Medics are using adsorbing, enveloping, antacid and anaesthetic features of aluminium containing agents (e.g. almagel); information about such agents contains its possible toxic exposure. Parenteral feeding and albumin solutions could contain increased concentrations of aluminium, caused by the way of its manufacturing and purification. Aluminium dishes, cosmetics and deodorants could be the ways of aluminium intake by humans.

The most often occasions of aluminium intoxication were registered for patients with chronic kidney disease when agents containing aluminium are affecting during the duration of treatment. Toxic effect of aluminium overdose include interference (displacement and substituting) with metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, iron and other biologically active elements, change of enzyme system activity.

Bones are being important targeted organs of aluminium pathologic effect are bones (aluminium is replacing calcium in mineralization, damaging normal secretion of osteoid, making bone calcium less available for mobilization) and brain (aluminium encephalopathy in case of severe intoxication).

Aluminium could replace calcium-linking areas in epithelial bodies, regulating phosphorus-calcium metabolism, casing the change of its physiological response. It was proven, that increase of aluminium concentration could cause decrease of absorption of many elements and vitamins.

Intake of overdoses of aluminium with occupational dust when breathing, could be deposed in lungs, causing fibrotic changes in lung tissue. Increased interest to the aluminium metabolism was caused by the discovery of accumulation thereof in separate parts of brain in cases of Alzheimer disease. Patients with kidney disease are potentially endangered of aluminium intoxication due to the parafunction of aluminium excretion. Intoxication Signs of intoxication in heavy occasions could include osteohalisteresis and encephalopathy.

Laboratory signs of aluminium intoxication of diffusion patients are lower than normal level of parathyroid hormone for existing stage of kidney disease, together with high concentration of aluminium in blood serum.

Patients with signs of osteohalisteresis and encephalopathy are often showing the level of intact parathyroid hormone lower than 16 pmol/l and level of aluminium serum higher than 60 mcg/l, patients with lack of such symptoms – parathyroid hormone higher than 16 pmol/l and level of aluminium serum lower than 20 mcg/l. IN cases of normal functioning of kidney, aluminium concentration in urine correlates to the level of aluminium intake by the body. Concentration of aluminium in hair and nails is reflecting chronic exposure of this element.