Gallium (69,7 a.m.u.) – rare element in human body contains ultratrace amounts of it. Industrial use is related to specific machinery and technologies (high-temperature thermometers, semiconductors, etc.).

In medicine gallium isotopes are being used in radioisotope diagnostics; gallium nitrate is being used in hypercalcemia therapy, caused by malignant diseases. Just like aluminium and cadmium, gallium suppresses bone exchange, metabolic changes could be expressed by growth inhibition. Three-valence gallium is capable to interfere with processes, where Fe3+ is being involved (including inflammation); clinical use of gallium agents against some antibiotic-resistant infections is being researched.

In human body gallium is accumulating in bone tissue, deposition in bone tissue could last several months. In case of skin contact, gallium could cause grey spots similar to dermatosis. Toxic effects mechanisms include interaction with phosphates and iron metabolism; cerebrospinal system could be the target of gallium toxic effect.

Degenerative functional and morphologic disorders are possible. Adverse events of use of gallium salts in malignant hypercalcaemia treatment include sickness, vomit, nephrotoxicity. In case of complications sodium iodide 1% solution shall be used.